Knaves and Fools: History, Satire,
and the Rise of the Novel

Elizabeth Teare

Course Description and Objectives

Knaves and Fools" takes an interdisciplinary approach to the story of the rise of the novel. It is designed as an English department seminar, expected to draw primarily upper-level majors but open to students at all levels and in other departments. It could also fit into a humanities program. Since a primary purpose for such seminars is to prepare students to research and write a senior thesis, a shorter version of such a project is built into the final unit.

The course attempts to model both the construction and the critique of a narrative about literary history. Any course that moves 150 years, though three periods, is necessarily selective in the books it uses and the story it chooses to tell. The works I have chosen tell a convincing story of the rise of the novel, focused on the importance of "character" in the genre and on its engagement in the sphere of public experience. The regular reappearance of the "knaves and fools" motif—explicitly taken up in each novel students encounter in the course, as well as in most of the satirical verse—is intended to help students follow the story as it unfolds.

It is a fascinating story, but I don't want my students to leave the class thinking this is the only possible version. The last unit of the course and the final project are designed to help students think critically about the story of the novel they've been following. Because Thackeray was instrumental in promoting this version of the story, the course ends with examples of his teleological literary criticism of the eighteenth century. By this point, students should feel confident enough in their knowledge of history, biography, and literature to challenge Thackeray's account.

"Knaves and Fools" has three units. Readings for each unit are discussed briefly below, with more details given in the attached syllabus and table of contents for the readings packet.

Unit 1

The first unit, "History," immerses students in early eighteenth-century politics. They begin by reading a Victorian version of these events, from S. R. Gardiner's Student's History of England, and viewing slides of portraits of major political figures. Looking at the portraits opens up discussion of "character" as an issue in all the genres we examine. I am lucky enough to have the Yale Center for British Art across the street, and the Assistant Curator of Paintings, an expert on Stuart portraiture, available to help students learn to look at, "read," and write about portraits. A selection of books on the subject of portraiture is also included in the "Readings on Reserve" bibliography. We return to portraits periodically throughout the course, to help students used to seeing politicians—and sometimes even writers—on television feel that they know the characters they are discussing. (A class web page featuring the images discussed in class is an ideal tool when students return to portraits to write about them. Many of these images are under copyright protection, however, and they are not well represented on museum and gallery web sites. Until more collections are digitized, material media like slides, color xeroxes, postcards, and of course library books are still the best options for study.)

Because the character and reputation of the Duke of Marlborough are a touchstone throughout the course, we also begin with Addison's 1705 poem "The Campaign," discussed alongside Sir Godfrey Kneller's heroic portrait of Marlborough on horseback. After considering these panegyrics, students turn in the second and third weeks to the satires of Swift and Pope. They read Swift's critiques of Marlborough in the "Examiner" and the History of the Four Last Years of the Queen, as well as the "Digression Concerning Madness" from A Tale of a Tub. From Pope they read the "Epilogue to the Satires" and the Epistles to Bathurst and to Dr. Arbuthnot (the latter containing Pope's attack on Addison as "Atticus"). Close reading of the poems allows students to develop a working definition of satire.

The poems also put into play the proverbial distinction between knaves and fools that organizes the course. To emphasize the importance of that distinction, we pause to look at the dozens of proverbs featuring fools, knaves, or both that were circulating in the Augustan air. The unit concludes with a short diagnostic paper (2-3 pages), in which students analyze a portrait of one of the writers or politicians they have encountered.

Unit II

The second unit, "The Novel," turns to Richardson, Fielding, and Smollett. As students read Pamela, Shamela and Joseph Andrews, discussion centers on characters who might be described as knaves (like Mr. B and Shamela) and fools (like Parson Adams). A dilemma arises here: some upper-level majors are likely to know this sequence of novels already, but many students are not. My tentative solution is to offer optional Friday sessions on Tom Jones to students who already know the earlier works. It would certainly be possible to substitute Tom Jones for the other novels, but Richardson has so much to say about knavery and foolishness that giving up Pamela would be a great loss. In addition, I think it's important to keep the critical possibilities of the Richardson-Fielding opposition in play, as a way of "teaching the conflict" in a course explicitly about the conflicts of literary history.

Alongside the novels we examine Hogarth's satirical prints, with special attention to the "Harlot's Progress" for its parallels to Shamela. In week seven we move forward a generation to The Expedition of Humphry Clinker. Here the "knave" and "fool" opposition returns in the context of Bramble's misanthropy and Humphry's simplicity. A secondary focus is the characters' perceptions of the public spaces of Bath, London, and Edinburgh, which can be fruitfully compared to Hogarth's city images.

The second unit ends with a short paper (5-6 pages) asking students to analyze one particular moment of satirical effect in a novel. They should be warmed up to writing about literature by this time, because they have been posting informal comments and queries to the course listserv. I encourage students to post regularly—and require them to do so occasionally—not only in order to get them writing but also in order to decenter classroom power, letting students suggest topics for discussion. One effective prompt to keep on-line discussion from lagging early in the course is to ask students to debate and agree, at the end of each week, on a title for that week's classes. On the enclosed syllabus, therefore, only the first week of classes has a title.

Unit III

The third unit, "The Historical Novel," ties everything together. The main reading is two nineteenth-century novels—Scott's Rob Roy and Thackeray's History of Henry Esmond—both set in the Augustan period. The outlaw plot of Rob Roy usefully emphasizes the questions of knavery, foolishness, and reputation raised in earlier units. Students are seldom aware, now, of Scott's enormous influence and the way he links periods they are used to seeing in separate semesters. Henry Esmond brings us full circle to the beginnings of the course: Marlborough, Swift, Pope, and Addison are among the characters Esmond meets in his progress though Augustan London. Marlborough and Swift, particularly, are among the knaves of the piece. By this point, students should feel that they know enough about these historical "characters" to judge the accuracy and fairness of Thackeray's satirical portraits.

To encourage students to analyze Scott's and Thackeray's representations of historical characters, the shorter readings in this unit offer alternative modes and points of view. In week twelve, for example, we read the DNB biography of Rob Roy and Wordsworth's poem about his grave (from which Scott takes his epigraph), and of course we watch the 1995 movie. When Sir Richard Steele appears in Esmond, besides the DNB biography and a few of Steele's own essays, we carefully examine Thackeray's highly-colored lecture on Steele, from his influential series on The English Humourists of the Eighteenth Century.

This last reading is especially important because it models the course's final, longer written project, introduced at the beginning of the third unit (see attached assignment sheet). The project asks students to synthesize their own views of the novel's history, through critiquing Thackeray's depiction, in his lectures, of one of the earlier writers they have studied. (Thackeray's lectures include Hogarth.) To do this, students need to learn more about both the works and the biography of the writer they choose, and they need to set Thackeray's judgment alongside others'. (Various nineteenth-century commentaries on the eighteenth century are placed on reserve, and students can also consult twentieth-century biography and criticism, though that is not a priority of the course.) The various steps of the project ask students to work their way up Bloom's hierarchy of objectives from knowledge to analysis to evaluation. They should be able, also, to generalize from Thackeray's example to see that any narrative of literary history—including the one presented by this course—is a construction that should be questioned.

In the last week of class, students present their findings and opinions to each other. Those working on the same writer team up, pooling their time to allow for more complex presentations. One additional option for the project is creative. Interested and adventurous students can write a shorter critical paper and also try their hand at producing one of the other discourses we've studied: satirical verse, portraiture (or caricature), or fictional narrative.

Writing Assignments

The final project for "Knaves and Fools" builds on the analytical skills called for by the shorter papers. Because it also challenges students to work steadily over six weeks, there are several check points built into the process. We meet one afternoon in the library, for an introduction to resources for the study of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century English literature, including the location in the stacks of nineteenth-century editions of eighteenth-century novelists. The supplementary readings for Scott and Thackeray raise in the class room the questions students should ask of similar materials they use for their own projects. In addition, I have required a rough draft, to be peer-edited in small groups, to which I also contribute. To emphasize the importance of this peer editing, the small "round-tables" replace a regular class meeting in week thirteen.

The roundtables are the last in a series of exercises that encourage students to think as critically about their own writing as they do about the literature they read. When students hand in papers, they are expected to include all notes and drafts, to help me (and them) understand at what point in their writing process things start to go wrong or to come together. They are encouraged to consult writing tutors and classmates, and to report to me on whether and how such consultations help them. This is one of the topics students must address in the "postscripts" they attach to each draft they submit. In their postscripts, students explain what they think works in their papers and what doesn't, offer an account of their writing process, and direct my attention to their areas of greatest concern.

All this effort at self-conscious writing practices is only useful if students apply the insights they and I glean from the process. Because I believe students learn much more from correcting mistakes than from applying to the next paper corrections to which they may or may not really have paid attention, I encourage revision. Both the short papers for this class can be revised and resubmitted for a new grade (a very effective bribe). To avoid being buried under an avalanche of frivolous drafts, I allow only one revision of each paper, within two weeks of my returning it; papers which come in late cannot be revised at all. Ideally, at the end of "Knaves and Fools" students have developed critical skills they can apply to the writing and the reading they will do not only in future courses but also in non-academic projects.

Course Outline/Syllabus

"Knaves and Fools" is an interdisciplinary course, drawing on the materials and methods used by literary scholars, historians, and historians of art. The main story we will follow is "the rise of the novel" in English, from its roots in the historical events, satirical writing, and portraiture in the early eighteenth century, to the historical novels of the nineteenth century. This is only one version of the story, and as we follow it we will also question it.

Students will write two short papers and one longer one. The first is a 2-3 page analysis of the painted portrait of one of the writers or politicians about whom we have read. The second, 5-6 pages long, will ask you to analyze one scene or moment in a novel. For the final project you will look back over the course, by becoming an expert on one of the eighteenth-century artists you have studied and judging the way he was represented historically and critically in the nineteenth century. For this project you may choose to write a 10-12 page paper, or you may write 8-10 pages and try your hand at another genre besides criticism: portraiture, satirical verse, or fiction. In either case, you will prepare a rough draft of your final paper for peer editing in small groups, and you will present your final project to the class in the last week of the term.

In addition, you will be expected to contribute your thoughts to class discussion by regular postings to the class listserv. The listserv will be informal, and you need contribute only six postings (one for each novelist we will read, and one for Hogarth). You may, of course, contribute as often as you like. The listserv is the place to raise questions of fact or interpretation about the reading, to suggest ideas you'd like to pursue in seminar meetings, and to place your own expertise at the service of other members of the class.

Attendance and participation are naturally the essential requirements of any seminar. Please note that there are three required Friday meetings (weeks 1, 9, and 10) and some optional ones, and that one Monday (week 13) we will meet in small groups at some odd times. You may miss two classes with no questions asked; any further absences must be accompanied by a dean's excuse.

Your grades will be calculated as follows:

first paper 10 %
second paper 20 %
final project 40 %
rough draft 10%
participation (including listserv) 20 %

Required Texts:

Samuel Richardson, Pamela. (Riverside)

Henry Fielding, Joseph Andrews and Shamela. (Oxford)

Tobias Smollett, The Expedition of Humphry Clinker. (Penguin)

Walter Scott, Rob Roy. (Oxford)

William Makepeace Thackeray, The History of Henry Esmond. (Penguin)

Course packet available at Tyco

Optional Text (consult instructor):

Henry Fielding. Tom Jones. (Norton)

Course Outline/Schedule

Unit 1: History

Week 1 - The Augustan Age in History and on Canvas

Monday: Introduction.

Wednesday: S. R. Gardiner, selections from A Student's History of England

Joseph Addison, "The Campaign"


Friday: Joseph Addison, "To Sir Godfrey Kneller, on his Picture of the King"

Richard Steele, Letter "to Mr. Spectator"

Field trip to the Yale Center for British Art

Guest lecture on early eighteenth-century portraiture by Julia Alexander, Assistant Curator of Paintings.

Week 2

Monday: Swift, "Examiner" no. 16 and no. 27, and selections from "The History of the Four Last Years of the Queen"


Wednesday: Jonathan Swift, "Digression concerning Madness"

"Knave" and "fool" proverbs

Week 3

Monday: Alexander Pope, Epistle "To Allen, Lord Bathurst. Of the Use of Riches" and "An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot"

Definitions of "satire" (handout)

Wednesday: Pope, "Epilogue to the Satires. Dialogue I"

Friday: First short paper due

Unit 2: Novels

(In weeks 4-6, interested students have the option of meeting on Fridays to discuss Fielding's Tom Jones.)

Week 4

Monday: Samuel Richardson, Pamela, pages 1-94

Wednesday: Pamela, 94-189 (end of volume I)

Week 5

Monday: Pamela, 193-end (volume 2)

Wednesday: Henry Fielding, Shamela


Week 6

Monday: Fielding, Joseph Andrews (Books I and II)

Wednesday: Joseph Andrews (Books III and IV)

Week 7

Monday: William Hogarth, selections

S. R. Gardiner on Fielding and Hogarth (handout)


Wednesday: Tobias Smollett, The Expedition of Humphry Clinker, pages 27-190

Week 8

Monday: Humphry Clinker, 190-300

Wednesday: Humphry Clinker, 300-95

Friday: Second short paper due

Unit 3: Historical Novels

Week 9

Monday: Introduction to final project.

Macaulay, chapter 3 of The History of England

Wednesday: Walter Scott, Rob Roy, pages 65-190 (volume I)

Friday: Library tour

Week 10

Monday: Rob Roy, 191-317 (volume II)

"Macgregor or Campbell, Robert, commonly called Rob Roy," from the Dictionary of National Biography

Topic for final paper due.

Wednesday: Rob Roy, 318-455 (volume III) and Scott's introductory material, 1-63

William Wordsworth, "Rob Roy's Grave"

Friday: Screening of Rob Roy (United Artists, 1995)

Week 11

Monday: W. M. Thackeray, The History of Henry Esmond, volume I, chapters 1-7 (pages 35-114)

Richard Steele as "Isaac Bickerstaff, Esq.," Tatler 181

"Steele, Sir Richard," from the DNB

Thackeray, "Steele," from The English Humourists

Wednesday: Henry Esmond, I, 8-14 (pages 115-202)


Week 12

Monday: Henry Esmond, II, 1-9 (pages 203-82)

Wednesday: Henry Esmond, II, 10-15 (pages 283-355)

Friday: Rough drafts of final paper (5 copies) due by 10 a.m.

Pick up rough drafts to read after noon & before 4 p.m.

Week 13

Monday: Rough draft roundtables

Class will meet in groups of 4, to be scheduled with instructor.

Wednesday: Henry Esmond, volume III.

Selections from The Spectator: no. 80 and no. 555.

Week 14

Monday: Conclusions and presentations

Wednesday: Conclusions and presentations

Friday: Final paper due

Course Packet

Table of Contents

Unit 1: History

Samuel Rawson Gardiner, Chapters 44 and 45 (selection) of A Student's History of England from the Earliest Times to 1885, vol. III (1890).

Joseph Addison, "The Campaign, a poem to the Duke of Marlborough" (1705).

———, "To Sir Godfrey Kneller, on his Picture of the King" (1715).

Richard Steele. Letter "to Mr. Spectator," from Spectator 555 (1712).

Portfolio I.

Mary II, by Sir Peter Lely

William III, after Lely

William III [on horseback], artist unknown

Anne, attributed to Sir Godfrey Kneller

John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, by Kneller

John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, attr. J. Closterman after J. Riley

Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, artist unknown

Joseph Addison, by Kneller

Richard Steele, by Kneller

Jonathan Swift. The Examiner, nos. 16 and 27 (1710).

———, Preface and Lib. I from The History of the Four Last Years of the Queen (Written 1713; published 1758).

———, "A Digression concerning the Original, the Use and

Improvement of Madness in a Commonwealth." From A Tale of a Tub (1704).

Proverbs about "knaves" and "fools." Selections from A Dictionary of the Proverbs in England in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. Ed. M. P. Tilley (1950). Alexander Pope, "To Allen, Lord Bathurst. Of the Use of Riches" (1733).

———, "An Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot" (1735).

———, "Epilogue to the Satires. Dialogue I" (1738).

Portfolio II.

Jonathan Swift, by Charles Jervas

Alexander Pope, by Jervas

George I, by Sir Godfrey Kneller

Robert Harley, 1st Earl of Oxford, by Sir Godfrey Kneller

Henry St. John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke, attr. Alexis Simon Belle

Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, by Jean Baptiste Van Loo

Prince James Francis Edward Stuart and his sister, by Nicolas de Largilliere

Unit 2: Novels

William Hogarth. Selected Prints. "A Harlot's Progress" (1732), "Marriage a la Mode" (1743-45), "Industry and Idleness" (1747), and assorted city scenes.

Portfolio III.

Samuel Richardson, by Mason Chamberlin

Mr. B. Finds Pamela Writing, by Joseph Highmore

Heads of Six of Hogarth's Servants, by William Hogarth

The Painter and His Pug [self-portrait], by Hogarth

O the Roast Beef of Old England ('The Gates of Calais'), by Hogarth

Hogarth Painting the Comic Muse, by Hogarth

Henry Fielding, by Hogarth

Tobias Smollett, artist unknown

Unit 3: Historical Novels

Thomas Babington Macaulay. From Chapter 3 of The History of England (1848).

"Macgregor or Campbell, Robert, commonly called Rob Roy." From the Dictionary of National Biography, volume 12.

William Wordsworth. "Rob Roy's Grave" (1807).

Richard Steele. Tatler no. 181 (1710).

"Steele, Sir Richard." Dictionary of National Biography, volume 18. William Makepeace Thackeray. "Steele." From The English Humourists of the Eighteenth Century (1851).

Steele. The Spectator nos. 80 (1711) and 555 (1712).

Portfolio IV.

Thomas Babington Macaulay, by Edward Matthew Ward

Sir Walter Scott, by Sir Edwin Landseer

William Makepeace Thackeray, by Frank Stone

William Makepeace Thackeray, by Landseer

Knaves and Fools: Final Project

Rough draft due Friday by 10 a.m. (week 12)

Final version due Friday by 4 p.m. (week 14)

In 1851 William Makepeace Thackeray wrote and delivered to an enthusiastic London audience a series of lectures on "The English Humourists of the Eighteenth Century." These lectures were repeated in cities all over England and Scotland, and in 1852 and 1853 Thackeray took them on the road to America. The "Humourists" Thackeray discussed include Swift, Pope, Addison, Fielding, Hogarth, and Smollett. Some of these men are also characters in the last novel we'll read this semester, Thackeray's History of Henry Esmond, published in 1852.

For this final project, I would like you to choose one of Thackeray's lectures and judge it as a piece of criticism—literary, historical, art historical—and perhaps as a piece of satire. We will look in class at the lecture on Sir Richard Steele (also a character in Esmond), and our discussion of that lecture may help you structure your paper. To make an accurate judgment of Thackeray's judgment, you will also need to learn something more about the life and work of the eighteenth-century figure you choose.*

This final project will be a substantial piece of critical writing (10-12 pages). If you're feeling adventurous, it can go beyond the critical, too. We have examined the workings of various artistic genres this semester: portraiture, satire, history, the novel. If you would like to try your hand at any of these genres, I would be delighted to help you plan such a project. In that case, of course, your critical essay can be shorter.

In projects like this, getting started and keeping working is part of the challenge. I have built in some deadlines and goals along the way to make the next six weeks easier and more productive. This Friday we will have a library tour, focusing on resources useful for this project. By next week you must choose your topic, so I can make you a copy of the relevant Thackeray lecture. A rough draft of your paper is due Friday, week 12, and we will meet the next week in small groups to discuss everyone's drafts. In the last week of class, you will present your conclusions and/or your creative work.

Materials you will want to consult:

class notes and the listserv
Thackeray's lectures and Henry Esmond
other works by your Humourist
other nineteenth-century commentary
biographical and historical sources
critical books and articles

Don't rely only on the class bibliography; do consult reference librarians. One of the main purposes of this project is to prepare you to write your senior essay.

Again, consult the first paper assignment for issues of style. Since you will not be able to revise this essay after I grade it, early and frequent consultations are a good idea. Please include with your final draft a large self-addressed envelope with enough postage to cover the paper and all notes and drafts, which I would like you to submit with the paper (in the envelope if you choose). Don't forget your postscript.

* If you want to write about Kneller, or about a politician (Thackeray wrote an essay on George I), or about a Richardson or another writer you know that Thackeray ignores, see me. We may well be able to arrange something.


I. In the reference section.

Dictionary of Art. 34 vols. Ed. Jane Turner. New York : Grove, 1996.

Dictionary of National Biography. 22 vols. plus supplements. Ed. Leslie Stephen and Sidney Lee. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1949-50. Harner, James L. Literary Research Guide: An Annotated Listing of Reference Sources in English Literary Studies. 3d ed. New York, MLA, 1998.

New Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature. Ed. George Watson. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1969-74.

Oxford Companion to British History. Ed. John Cannon. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1997.

Oxford Companion to English Literature. 5th ed. Ed. Margaret Drabble. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995.

Poole, William Frederick. Poole's Index to Periodical Literature. 6 vols. Gloucester, MA: Smith, 1963.

Wellesley Index to Periodical Literature, 1824-1900. 5 vols. Ed. Walter Houghton. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1966-89.

Who's Who in British History. 8 vols. London: Shepheard-Walwyn.

Volume 5: Who's Who in Stuart Britain. C. P. Hill. 1988.

Volume 6: Who's Who in Early Hanoverian Britain. Geoffrey Treasure. 1992.

Volume 7: Who's Who in Late Hanoverian Britain. Geoffrey Treasure. 1997.

Never underestimate a good encyclopedia.

II. On the web.

You can't do better than to begin with the "Subject Guides" link on the library home page. From there you can get to the best web resources for the eighteenth century, including Voice of the Shuttle. Created by Alan Liu at UC Santa Barbara.

Eighteenth-Century Resources. Jack Lynch, Rutgers.

Eighteenth-Century Studies Resources. Geoffrey Sauer, Carnegie Mellon.

III. On reserve.

Battestin, Martin C. Henry Fielding: a life. London: Routledge, 1989.

Bindman, David. Hogarth. New York: Oxford University Press, 1981.

———. Hogarth and his Times, Serious Comedy. London: British Museum Press 1997.

Beasley, Jerry. Tobias Smollett, Novelist. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1998.

Blanchard, Frederic. Fielding, the Novelist: a study in historical criticism. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1927.

Bright, James Franck. English History for the Use of Public Schools. 5 vols. London: Rivingtons, 1875-1904.

Courthope, William John. Addison. 1889. New York: AMS, 1968.

Dammers, Richard H. Richard Steele. Boston: Twayne, 1982.

Eaves, T. C. Duncan. Samuel Richardson: A Biography. Oxford: Clarendon, 1971.

Egerton, Judy. Hogarth's Marriage A-la-Mode. London: National Gallery Publications, 1997.

Fletcher, C. R. L. An Introductory History of England. New York: Dutton, 1904-23.

Glendenning, Victoria. Swift. London: Hutchinson, 1998.

Harden, Edgar. Thackeray's English Humourists and Four Georges. Newark: University of Delaware Press, 1985.

Gardiner, Samuel Rawson. A Student's History of England: from the earliest times to 1885. London: Longmans, 1891.

Harris, Frances. A Passion for Government: The Life of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough. Oxford: Clarendon, 1971.

Hazlitt, William. Lectures on the English Comic Writers. Volume 6 of The Complete Works of William Hazlitt. Ed. P. P. Howe. London: Dent, 1930-34.

Jones, J. R. Marlborough. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

Knapp, Lewis M. Tobias Smollett, Doctor of Men and Manners. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1949.

Lockhart, John G. Memoirs of the Life of Sir Walter Scott. 5 vols. Boston: Houghton Mifflin/Riverside, 1901.

Macaulay, Thomas Babington. The History of England from the Accession of James the Second. Ed. Charles Harding Firth. NY: AMS, 1968. (Reprint of 1913-15 ed.)

Mack, Maynard. Alexander Pope: a life. New Haven: Yale UP, 1985.

McCarthy, Justin. A History of the Four Georges. 4 vols. New York: Harper, 1981.

Moore, Robert Etheridge. Hogarth's Literary Relationships. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1948.

Paulson, Ronald. Hogarth. 3 vols. New Brunswick: Rutgers, 1991-93.

Piper, David. The English Face. Ed. Malcolm Rogers. London: National Portrait Gallery, 1992.

Pointon, Marcia. Hanging the Head: Portraiture and Social Formation in Eighteenth-Century England. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1993.

Ray, Gordon N. Thackeray: The Age of Wisdom 1847-1863. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1958.

———. Thackeray: The Uses of Adversity 1811-1846. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1955.

Scott, Walter. Sir Walter Scott on Novelists and Fiction. Ed. Ioan Williams. London: Routledge, 1968.

Shawe-Taylor, Desmond. The Georgians: Eighteenth-Century Portraiture and Society. London: Barrie and Jenkins, 1990.

Smithers, Peter. The Life of Joseph Addison. Oxford: Clarendon, 1968.

Solkin, David H. Painting for Money: The Visual Arts and the Public Sphere in Eighteenth-Century England. New Haven: Yale University Press for the Paul Mellon Centre, 1993.

Stephen, Leslie. English Literature and Society in the Eighteenth Century. London: Duckworth, 1910.

———. The History of English Thought in the Eighteenth Century. London: Smith Elder, 1876.

Stewart, J. Douglas. Sir Godfrey Kneller and the English Baroque Portrait. Oxford: Clarendon, 1983.

Sutherland, John. The Life of Walter Scott: A Critical Biography. Oxford: Blackwell, 1995.

Thackeray, William Makepeace. The English Humourists of the Eighteenth Century. Ed. W. L. Phelps. New York: Henry Holt, 1900.

Trevelyan, George Macaulay. England under Queen Anne. 3 vols. London: Longmans, 1930-34.



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