Discerning Taste, 1660-1800: England, France,
Kay Parkhurst Easson
The Eighteenth Century, as
Raymond Williams observes, is the time when "taste" became "Taste." The powers of sensation, residing
in the tongue and palate, were metaphorically transmuted into the powers
of cultural discrimination and judgment. Yet, the aphoristic conviction
of Williams' observations elides the fascinating and complex construction
of Taste in the long eighteenth century. This was an age which produced
much anxiety about Taste, anxiety which resonates in similar tones to
this day. We believe a study of Taste will be of value for our students
(especially the large numbers of first-generation college students we
teach), since questions of Taste form the basis for much of their decision-making
and spark many of their insecurities about establishing their independence.
Consequently, we have planned "Discerning Taste," a course which meets
an upper-division humanities requirement for Arts and Sciences majors,
to show our students how their concerns about Taste are situated in a
complex historical process. We want to engage them in controversies about
cultural status and cultural participation in eighteenth-century England,
France, and America.
Taste should provide an integrative concept for
students' knowledge of the eighteenth century. By the end of the semester,
they should be able to discuss the ways physical (sensory) taste was
related to and distinguished from aesthetic Taste throughout the period.
They should realize how the discourse of Taste shaped and reflected
the massive political, social, and economic transformation of the eighteenth
century. Finally, they should recognize that while standards of Taste
wielded a great deal of social and political power, these standards
were also disputed, not only by revolutions, but also from the start
by those who were excluded from the institutions and disciplines of
Taste should also provide an integrative concept
for students' personal and intellectual development. We hope that it
will allow students to connect their work in our course with other courses
they have taken, other books they have read, other experiences they
have had. We also hope that students will realize that Taste is not
formed according to universal standards of value but is, instead, culturally
constructed. Thus, Taste intersects with other culturally-constructed
components of identity such as race, class, gender, body image, and
codes of conduct. With this realization, students will be equipped to
question the ideal of a detached and disinterested perspective from
which standards of Taste may be articulated. By focusing on how and
why taste became Taste, students should learn to exercise Taste flexibly,
becoming not merely passive observers but active participants in constructing
their own, and acknowledging other, Tastes. In sum, students should
learn a history, theory, and practice of Taste.
We have divided the course
into three units—Cultivating
Taste, Promoting Taste, and Revolutionizing Taste.
Although divisions are never as neat as such breaks suggest, these units
nevertheless sketch a historical narrative in which Taste figures as
both an agent and reflection of cultural, political, and personal change.
The first unit, Cultivating Taste,
begins with two works which introduce the institutions and disciplines
in France and England, beginning with France, which formalized cultural
activity more thoroughly than any other Western civilization. The
of Molière's Would Be Gentleman (1670) engages teachers
to effect the transformation of his physical existence into Taste: his
movements, he hopes, will become dance, his speech, prose, and his meals
evidence of a refined sensibility. Etherege's Man of Mode (1676)
presents Sir Fopling Flutter, whose propensities for French fashion,
humorously depict a recurring problem for British Taste—the ever-present
threat of French invasion. In these two plays we meet several important
character types: the would-be gentlemen themselves, philistines and
vulgarians, teachers and merchants, and aristocrats with "true" discernment.
By viewing the failed aspirations of the two would-be gentlemen we
the tensions inherent in Taste and its institutions. Courtly values
and aristocratic privilege required an ideology of innate Taste; on
the other hand, the very notion of institutionalizing Taste suggested
that this courtly attribute, like land and titles, could be cultivated
and even acquired.
The rest of this initial unit focuses on England
in the years following the Glorious Revolution where the destabilization
of aristocratic privileges is mirrored in conflicting and shifting standards
of Taste. Aphra Behn's Oroonoko (1688), for example, casts the
naturally discerning aristocrat as a "noble slave." While Behn expresses
admiration for both the Stuarts and her fictive hero, she explicitly
attempts to cultivate a taste for the exotic and the "curious" in a
readership that extends beyond the court. Addison's and Shaftesbury's
simultaneously conflicting and overlapping views on cultivating Taste
further exemplify the complexities of this period, and lead into a consideration
of tea and the material culture of Taste. Here, with the aid of selected
portraits (representatives of the conversation piece genre) we show
students that tea, one of the products of the new world, epitomizes
how Taste was inscribed in sensory experience and the practices of everyday
life, both private and public. Pope's "Windsor Forest" (1713), (1712,
1714, 1717), and "Epistle to Burlington" (1733) close this unit. Engaging
issues of gender, colonialism, and class, Pope elegantly constructs
himself as Tastemaker. While the promoters of Taste in the comedies
of Molière and Etherege appear to fail and while Behn, as a woman
writer, seems self-consciously hesitant toward forming Taste, Pope's
enterprise seems confidently pedagogic. Hence Pope creates characters—critics,
connoisseurs, perfect gentlemen, and flawed ladies—who convincingly
display their good Taste.
By mid-century, the word "Taste" was
on almost every important tongue. The money to acquire Taste, thanks
to the wealth
produced by the growing colonial enterprise, was in more and more pockets.
Thus, in our second unit, Promoting Taste, we show the increasing
importance of institutions of Taste (as the excerpt from Foote's
Selections from Burke's on the Sublime and the Beautiful exemplify
a number of efforts to refine Taste and defend it from the whims
In addition, we emphasize a conflict which intensified throughout the
century between useless luxury and the decorously useful. It was
that grew along with the wealth produced by the imperial enterprise.
Henry Fielding, William Hogarth, and Jonas Hanway all defend against
luxury. With these texts on tea and gin, we call students' attention
to the ways in which tasting beverages continued to articulate notions
of proper Taste. Then, Burney's (1778) tells the story of a would-be
Lady who comes to a happily aristocratic end in spite of the temptations
proffered by various vulgarians and promoters of luxury. This text
allows us to link the novel of manners to institutions of Taste—such
as conduct books and public entertainments—which taught the rising
middle classes how to express Good Taste. Finally, with Beckford's
we present a text which narrates its main character's insatiable curiosity
and undisciplined Taste. Since may be read as a parody of the search
for Taste, we conclude the unit by stressing how thoroughly the subject
of Taste pervaded the closing years of the century; parody, after all,
assumes audience familiarity with its model discourse.
The questions about Taste,
gender, class, race, and power raised in the first two units return
in full force in the
final unit—Revolutionizing Taste—focusing on the cultural activity
surrounding the American and French Revolutions, and the British reactions
to the revolutions. From the Boston Tea Party to Marie Antoinette's
cakes, this unit will stress that Taste is not only an aesthetic issue,
but also a political and social issue—indeed, sometimes a matter of
life and death. To begin, we provide texts that encourage students
interpret the Boston Tea Party as a politically inspired change in
Taste. Our choice of texts also returns us to the would-be ladies and
philistines, connoisseurs, and others whom we have encountered from
the beginning. Tyler's (1787), in particular, asks what role these
should play in a republic founded on equality. Turning to Burke (1790)
and Wollstonecraft (1790), we emphasize the centrality of issues of
Taste in the British debate on the French Revolution. This unit concludes
with two contemporary works, a film and novel. Scola's film, (1982),
depicts noted radical Thomas Paine, revolutionary chronicler Restif
de la Bretonne, the fading aristocrat Casanova, and other representative
types of society traveling together through Revolutionary France, while
the doomed royal family, the embodiment of Taste, flees to Varennes.
Susan Sontag's (1992) ties together many of the themes of the course.
This rich narrative touches upon collecting, aesthetic passions and
values, curiosity, decorum, and standards of Taste. Its interlocking
stories of born gentlemen (including Beckford) and a lady (the first
Lady Hamilton), a would-be Lady (Emma Hamilton), a Lady turned revolutionary
(Eleonora de Fonseca Pimental), an arbiter of Taste (William Hamilton),
artists (Goethe, George Romney, and Angelica Kauffman), and vulgar
challenge students to apply all they have learned about eighteenth-century
In organizing our course,
we selected cultural texts in which Taste seemed to be an issue rather
than attempting an
exhaustive survey of eighteenth-century Taste. Since "Taste" and its
meanings are such a vital question in most realms of eighteenth-century
culture, we realize there are many texts we have omitted. The course
could include many artifacts and texts that we have not mentioned; indeed
such flexibility was one of our goals as we developed the course. As
our research interests change, we will change texts without drastically
reorganizing the course. And, the basic frame of the course lends itself
to our colleagues' textual preferences, even as they face similar pedagogical
challenges. The course's flexibility also encourages collaboration among
faculty members from several disciplines, since Taste, itself, is a
"naturally" trans-disciplinary subject.
Since we want to emphasize
the physical origins and expressions of Taste, as well as its continued
influence in our
students' lives, we will be working with an extremely broad definition
of "text." As the syllabus illustrates, we have included a wide range
of written and visual texts, and we often draw students' attention
the material culture of the eighteenth century as well, especially
beverages (tea, coffee, and gin) and fashions (wigs and hoopskirts).
to material cultural epitomizes the links between sensory experience,
everyday life, and Taste, and it encourages students to recognize
broad range of cultural phenomena as texts to be read and interpreted.
To encourage students to acquire the skills and habits necessary
thoughtful reading and articulate interpretation, we will provide study
questions throughout the semester. Students will respond to these
in a journal; periodically, they will share their written responses
with other students. The questions serve as a daily reading exercise
and stimulus to discussion. We have provided supplementary readings
of various kinds for each unit of the course; these provide contexts,
model interpretative methods, and link the required texts to other
We hope they also convey to students that they are joining a long conversation
about individual texts and about eighteenth-century Taste.
To encourage students to
realize their acculturated, tacitly held knowledge of Taste as they
learn about its history, we
will ask them, first, to write a brief character sketch of a character
type they recognize from their own experience. (We will suggest certain
types to them in an introductory lecture to the course.) On the second
day of class, students will share their sketches, and we will link
characters to 18th-century Characters. This assignment will provide
students with a variety of Taste-based character types which they
chart in other texts throughout the course. The connoisseur, the critic,
the collector, the philistine, the fashion-plate, and more are already
known to students. The basic exercise of looking for similarities
differences in these types as they encounter them in their reading
should help students to respond critically to their reading, rather
(as they often do) at the unfamiliarity of eighteenth-century writing.
Finally, accounting for how the characters change as the course (and
century) progresses should encourage students to historicize, contextualize,
and synthesize their expanding knowledge about Taste. As a mid-term
project, we will ask students to work in groups in order to prepare
brief, fifteen-minute presentations on "institutions" of Taste. The
final project of the course, an extended critique, permits students
to synthesize their knowledge of characters and institutions. The
and final take-home examinations require students to express their
knowledge of Taste through comparative analysis of the required texts.
Aphra Behn. Oroonoko. Ed. Joanna Lipking.
Norton Critical Edition.
Alexander Pope. Poetry and Prose. Ed. Aubrey
Williams. Riverside Edition.
Frances Burney. Evelina. Ed. Kristina Straub.
Bedford Cultural Edition.
William Beckford. Vathek. Oxford World's
Susan Sontag. The Volcano Lover: A Romance.
Packet of Required Texts on Library Reserve:
Molière, The Would Be Gentleman;
Etherege, The Man of Mode; Shaftesbury, Characteristics (Selections—Ed.
Robertson); Addison, The Spectator (Selections—Ed. Bond); Ovington, An Essay upon the Nature and Qualities of Tea (Selections);
Fielding, "Of Drunkenness" (Selections); Hanway, "An Essay on Tea" (Selections);
Burke, A Philosophical Enquiry (Selections—Ed. Boulton); Paine, Tea Leaves (Selections); Common Sense (Selections—Meridian/NAL);
Burke, Reflections on the Revolution in France (Selections— Oxford
World's Classics); Wollstonecraft, Vindication of the Rights of Men (Selections—Ed.
Tuesday: Introduction to Course
Slide Presentation I—Character & Caricature
Thursday: *Assignment I (Character Sketch)
Discuss Molière, The Would Be Gentleman, Acts
1 & 2
Tuesday: Molière, The Would
Be Gentleman, Acts 3-5
George Etherege, The Man of Mode or Sir
Fopling Flutter, Acts 1 & 2
Thursday: George Etherege, The Man of
Mode, Acts 3-5
1-7; Braverman; Canfield, 1-16; Peters; Riggs; Staves, Secrets.
Tuesday: Aphra Behn, Oroonoko,
Thursday: Aphra Behn, Oroonoko
to Behn & Oroonoko
in Norton Critical Edition, 189-264; Benedict.
Tuesday: Selections from Shaftesbury,
Characteristics. Vol. I, 216-234; Vol. II, 256-272.
Slide Presentation II—Conversation,
Thursday: Selections from Addison, The
Spectator. Nos. 2, 10, 2l, 69, 65, 75, 409; Selections from John
Ovington, An Essay upon the Nature and Qualities of Tea, 1699.
Lecture on the Discourse
of Taste, Conversation, Taste and Commerce, the Coffeehouse, the
rituals of Tea and Taste.
9-27; Kowaleski-Wallace, 19-36; Pointon, Hanging the Head, 107-76; Schivelbusch, 34-84;
Pope, "Windsor-Forest," 1713.
Thursday: Pope, The Rape of the Lock,
1712, 1714, 1717
Tuesday: Pope, The Rape of the
Readings: Brown, 6-45, 94-127; Bunn; Deutsch,
40-82; Landa; Staves, "Pope's Refinement."
Thursday: Pope, Epistle, To Richard Boyle,
Earl of Burlington, 1733
Handout with brief selections (On Palladio— Isaac
Ware. A Complete Body of Architecture, 1756; On Classical
Architecture—James Stuart and Nicholas Revett, The Antiquities of
Athens, 1762; On the Earl of Burlington— Horace Walpole, Anecdotes
of Painting in England, 1771, 1780.
Ferraro; Lubbock; Nelson.
Tuesday: *Take Home Midterm Examination
Slide Presentation III—Luxury
and the Disciplines of Taste
Selections from Henry Fielding, "Of
Drunkenness, A Second Consequence of Luxury Among the Vulgar," An Enquiry Into
the Causes of the late Increase of Robbers, 1751.
Selections from Jonas Hanway, "An
Essay on Tea" A Journal of Eight Days Journey, 1757.
Thursday: Selections from Edmund Burke,
A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origins of our Ideas of the Sublime
and Beautiful, III.1; III.27; IV. 1; IV. 2; IV. 3, IV.4.
Tuesday: *Student Presentations, Institutions
Thursday: *Student Presentations, Institutions
Reading: Samuel Foote,
(Dramatic Sketch in an Auction Room), 1751-53.
Tuesday: Burney, Evelina
Thursday: Burney, Evelina
Tuesday: Burney, Evelina
Thursday: Burney, Evelina
Cultural Contexts" in Bedford Cultural Edition, 437-578; Dykstal.
Tuesday: William Beckford, Vathek
Thursday: Beckford, Vathek
Tuesday: Boston Tea Party; Selections
from Tea Leaves. "A Lady's Adieu to Her Tea-Table." Selections
from Thomas Paine, Common Sense, 1776, 23-44.
Anon., A Society
of Patriotic Ladies, 1775.
Thursday: Royall Tyler, The Contrast,
xiii-6, 99-140; Evelev.
Tuesday: Selections from Burke, Reflections
on the Revolution in France, 1790, 71-88; Selections from Wollstonecraft,
A Vindication of the Rights of Men, 1790, 1-28.
Handout/Illustration: Gillray, "FASHION before
EASE;—or,—A good Constitution sacrificed, for a Fantastic Form," 1793.
Thursday: Film: Ettore Scola. La Nuit
de Varennes, 1982.
94-104; Paulson, Representations,
Tuesday: Susan Sontag, The Volcano
Lover; A Romance, 1992 Slide Presentation IV—On Artifacts and Attitudes
Thursday: *Critique Due
Sontag, The Volcano Lover
Kennedy; Pointon, Strategies
for Showing, 173-227.
*Take Home Final
Examination Due During Finals Week
List of Slides
Slide Presentation I
William Hogarth. The Five Orders of Periwigs,
1761. Anon. The Female Pyramid, Oxford Magazine, 1771; J. Bretherton
after Henry Bunbury. The Houndsditch Macaroni, 1772; J. Bretherton
after Henry Bunbury. The St. James's Macaroni, 1772; Anon. The
Macaronies, Lady's Magazine, iv, 1773; J. R. Smith. Miss Macaroni
and her Gallant at a Print-Shop, 1773; Thomas Rowlandson after Humphry
Repton. 1784 or The Fashions of the Day; Anon. The Extravagance
or The Mountain Head Dress of 1776.
Slide Presentation II
John Closterman. The 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury
and the Hon. Maurice Ashley-Cooper, c.1700-1; Man and Child Drinking
Tea, 1725; Gawen Hamilton. Family Group, c.1730; William
Hogarth. The House of Cards, 1730, and The Children's Party,
1730; Hogarth. A Family Party, c.1730-35
Slide Presentation III
Johann Zoffany. Lord Willoughby de Broke and
His Family, 1766; Zoffany. Queen Charlotte with her Two Eldest
Sons, 1764; William Hogarth. Gin Lane, and Beer Street,
Slide Presentation IV
George Romney. Emma Hamilton (?) as a Bacchante;
Rehberg & Piroli. Emma Hamilton in the "Attitude" of a Vestal
Virgin; Portland Vase; William Blake. The Spiritual Form of Nelson
Guiding Leviathan, c.1805-1809.
Brief Designations of Assignments
Prepare, with members of
your group, a 15-minute presentation on one of the institutions that
promoted and cultivated
Taste in eighteenth-century France or England. The following are possible
subjects: The (French) Encyclopédistes or English Cyclopedists,
Grub Street, official Academies such as The Royal Academy in England
or the French Academy, Galleries, Publishing Projects such as Johnson's Lives of the Poets or his Dictionary, Vauxhall Gardens,
the Grand Tour, the Coffee House, the Opera. Then, listen to all of
the presentations and write (on your own) a two-page report that compares
the institution described in another presentation to the institution
Write a 1,500-word critique of Susan Sontag's The
Volcano Lover. Imagine that you are writing for students who have
not taken this class. Tell them what kinds of Taste-related character
types the book contains. Indicate how well you feel the book engages
the issues of cultivating, promoting, and revolutionizing Taste. In
short, what will readers learn from reading a twentieth-century novel
about eighteenth-century Taste?
Sample Final Examination Questions:
What role do institutions of Taste play in transforming
women such as Pope's Belinda, Burney's Evelina, and Sontag's
Emy Lyon into Ladies? What are the rewards for successful transformation
and the punishments for failure? Be certain to refer to specific passages
and incidents from your reading.
In 1776, Sir Joshua Reynolds
concluded his seventh annual "Discourse on Art" to The Royal Academy by asserting that "the
real substance . . . of what goes under the name of taste, is fixed
and established in the nature of things." Write a brief dialogue which
features Royall Tyler's Manly and Dimple debating
this statement. Then explain, with reference to The Contrast
and to your knowledge of the history and theory of Taste, the logic
of your debate. Refer to other texts we have studied.
Sample Journal Questions:
In Molière's The Would Be Gentleman,
why don't Monsieur Jourdain's teachers give him the "class or culture" he
is seeking? How do they promote their services? Could they take a different
In The Would Be Gentleman, the
noble Dorante has the "class or culture" that Jourdain wants. Yet, it could also be
argued that he is the "villain of the piece." Make this argument.
What assumptions does Riggs
make about the sources of nobility and Taste in his article on Molière's
drama? What assertions does Bourdieu make in the selections from Distinction?
Does the play confirm the arguments of either critic?
How is Royall Tyler's attack on luxury in The
Contrast similar to Fielding's attack on luxury? In what way is
While the other would-be ladies and gentlemen we
have encountered are objects of ridicule, The Contrast's would-be
gentleman, Dimple, is cast as the villain. How does Tyler "justify" this
characterization as particularly American?
Reserve Reading List
This is a very selective list of sources on Taste
that omits many excellent works. Our goal was to select representative
works. We have included works that are especially useful for their theoretical
breadth, works that provide historical contexts, and works addressed
to issues of Taste in the required texts.
Ashfield, Andrew and Peter de Bolla. The Sublime:
A Reader in Eighteenth-Century Aesthetic Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press, 1996.
Benedict, Barbara. "The
`Curious Attitude' in Eighteenth-Century Britain: Observing and Owning." Eighteenth-Century Life 14 (1990):
Bermingham, Ann and John Brewer, eds. The Consumption
of Culture 1600-1800. London: Routledge, 1995.
Bernstein, Maxine and Robert
Boyers. "Women, the
Arts, and the Politics of Culture: An Interview with Susan Sontag."
Conversations with Susan Sontag. Ed. Leland A. Poague. Jackson:
University Press of Mississippi, 1995. 57-78.
Black, Jeremy. The British Abroad: The Grand
Tour in the Eighteenth Century. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992.
Bourdieu, Pierre. Distinction: A Social Critique
of the Judgement of Taste. Trans. Richard Nice. Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 1984.
Bramston, James. The Man of Taste, Occasion'd
by an Epistle of Mr. Pope's on That Subject. London, 1733.
Braverman, Richard. "The
Rake's Progress Revisited: Politics and Comedy in the Restoration." Cultural Readings of Restoration
and Eighteenth-Century English Theater. Ed. J. Douglas Canfield
and Deborah C. Payne. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1995. 141-168.
Brewer, John and Roy Porter, eds. Consumption
and the World of Goods. London: Routledge, 1993.
Brown, Laura. Alexander Pope. Oxford: Basil
Bunn, James H. "The Aesthetics
of British Mercantilism."
New Literary History 11 (1980): 303-321.
Canfield, J. Douglas. Tricksters & Estates:
On the Ideology of Restoration Comedy. Lexington: University Press
of Kentucky, 1997.
Craig, Randall. "Beckford's
Inversion of Romance in Vathek." Orbis Litterarum 39 (1984): 95-106.
DeBruyn, Frans. "Edmund
Burke's Natural Aristocrat: The `Man of Taste' as a Political Ideal." Eighteenth-Century Life
11 (1987): 41-60.
Denvir, Bernard. The Eighteenth Century: Art,
Design and society, 1689-1789. A Documentary History of Taste in
Britain. London: Longman, 1983. [Contains Foote, Ware, Stuart & Revett,
Deutsch, Helen. Resemblance & Disgrace:
Alexander Pope and the Deformation of Culture. Cambridge: Harvard
University Press, 1996.
Dykstal, Timothy. "Evelina and
the Culture Industry." Criticism 37 (1987): 41-60.
Eagleton, Terry. The Function of Criticism from
The Spectator to Post-Structuralism. London: Verso, 1984.
—. The Ideology of the Aesthetic. Oxford:
Basil Blackwell, 1990.
Elias, Norbert. The Civilizing Process.
Trans. Edmund Jephcott. 2 Vols. New York: Pantheon, 1978.
Evelev, John. "The Contrast: The
Problem of Theatricality and Political and Social Crisis in Postrevolutionary
America." Early American Literature 31 (1996): 74-97.
Ferraro, Julian. "Taste
and Use: Pope's Epistle to Burlington." British Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies 19
Hamblyn, Richard. "Private
Cabinets and Popular Geology: The British Audiences for Volcanoes
in the Eighteenth Century."
Transports: Travel, Pleasure, and Imaginative Geography, 1600-1830.
Ed. Chloe Chard and Helen Langdon. New Haven: Yale University Press,
Kennedy, Liam. Susan Sontag: Mind as Passion.
Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1995.
Kowaleski-Wallace, Elizabeth. Consuming Subjects:
Women, Shopping, and Business in the Eighteenth Century. New York:
Columbia University Press, 1997.
Landa, Louis A. "Pope's
Belinda, The General Emporie of the World, and the Wondrous Worm." South Atlantic Quarterly 70
Landes, Joan. Women and the Public Sphere in
the Age of the French Revolution. Ithaca: Cornell University Press,
Lipking, Lawrence. The Ordering of the Arts
in Eighteenth-Century England. Princeton: Princeton University Press,
Liu, Alan. "Toward A Theory
of Common Sense: Beckford's and Johnson's Rasselas." Texas Studies in Language and Literature
Lubbock, Jules. The Tyranny of Taste: The Politics
of Architecture and Design in Britain 1550-1960. New Haven: Yale
University Press, 1995.
McKendrick, Neil, John Brewer, and J. H. Plumb.
The Birth of a Consumer Society: the Commercialization of Eighteenth-Century
England. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1982.
Mackie, Erin. "Lady Credit
and the Strange Case of the Hoop-Petticoat." College Literature 20 (1993): 27-44.
Mattick, Paul Jr., ed. Eighteenth-Century Aesthetics
and the Reconstruction of Art. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press,
Nelson, T.G.A. "Pope, Burlington,
Architecture, and Politics: A Speculative Revisionist View." Eighteenth-Century
Life 21 (1997): 455-461.
Paulson, Ronald. The Beautiful, Novel, and Strange:
Aesthetics and Heterodoxy. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press,
—. Representations of Revolution (1789-1820).
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983.
Pears, Iain. The Discovery of Painting: The
Growth of Interest in the Arts in England, 1680-1768. New Haven:
Yale University Press, 1988.
Peters, J. S. "The Novelty;
or, Print, Money, Fashion, Getting, Spending, and Glut." Cultural Readings of Restoration and
Eighteenth-Century English Theater. Ed. J. Douglas Canfield and
Deborah C. Payne. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1995. 169-194.
Pointon, Marcia. Hanging the Head: Portraiture
and Social Formation in Eighteenth-Century England. New Haven: Yale
University Press, 1993.
—. Strategies for Showing: Women, Possession,
and Representation in English Visual Culture 1665-1800. Oxford:
Oxford University Press, 1997.
Prince, Michael B. "The
Eighteenth-Century Beauty Contest." Modern Language Quarterly 55 (1994): 251-279.
Ribeiro, Aileen. The Art of Dress: Fashion in
England and France 1750-1820. New Haven: Yale University Press:
Riggs, Larry W. "Language
and Art as Merchandise in Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme." The University of South Florida
Quarterly 17 (1978): 15-19, 32
Schivelbusch, Wolfgang. Tastes of Paradise:
A Social History of Spices, Stimulants, and Intoxicants. Trans.
David Jacobson. New York: Random House, 1992.
Sekora, John. Luxury: The Concept in Western
Thought from Eden to Smollett. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University
Shaffer, E. S. "`To remind us of China'—William
Beckford, Mental Traveller on the Grand Tour: The Construction of
in Landscape." Transports: Travel, Pleasure, and Imaginative Geography,
1600-1830. Ed. Chloe Chard and Helen Langdon. New Haven: Yale University
Press, 1996. 207-242.
Shields, David S. Civil
Tongues & Polite
Letters in British America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina
—. Oracles of Empire: Poetry, Politics, and
Commerce in British America 1690-1750. Chicago: University of Chicago
Solkin, David H. Painting for Money: The Visual
Arts and the Public Sphere in Eighteenth-Century England. New Haven:
Yale University Press, 1993.
Staves, Susan. "Pope's
Refinement." The Eighteenth
Century: Theory and Interpretation 29 (1988), 145-165.
—. "The Secrets of Genteel
Identity in The Man
of Mode: Comedy of Manners vs. The Courtesy Book." Studies in
Eighteenth-Century Culture 19 (1989): 117-128.
Williams, Raymond. Keywords: A Vocabulary of
Culture and Society. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.